文章摘要
夫妻共同财产的潜在共有
Potential Sharing of Marital Common Property
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 夫妻共同财产  潜在共有  夫妻共同债务  交易安全
英文关键词: marital common property  potential sharing  marital joint debt  transaction safety
基金项目:
作者单位
龙俊 清华大学法学院 
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中文摘要:
      我国现行夫妻共同财产制度应该解释为潜在共有。就夫妻内部关系而言,采取潜在共有理论可以彻底解放夫妻间的财产分配规则,避免受到财产权取得规则的不当干扰,有利于进行精确化的价值判断。就夫妻对外关系而言,采取潜在共有理论可以避免夫妻财产关系的复杂化危害交易安全。在潜在共有理论下,"婚姻法解释三"第10条中的登记在夫妻间只有"偏好推定"作用。婚姻法第17条第1款第4项、"婚姻法解释二"第22条、"婚姻法解释三"第7条都是与夫妻共同财产制无关的意思表示解释规则。现行法对于共同债务区分内部关系和外部关系的模式应予肯定,但是在风险控制的力度方面还有完善空间:应该肯定夫妻间的追偿请求权,并区分内部和外部证明责任分配规则;"为夫妻共同生活所负的债务"范围过窄,应该扩张为"夫妻共同从中受益的债务";非举债方承担债务的责任财产范围应该限缩于共同财产以及离婚时从共同财产中分得部分。
英文摘要:
      The current system of marital common property in China should be interpreted as potential sharing system. As far as internal marital relationship is concerned, the adoption of the potential sharing theory can free rules of property distribution from the limitation of the concept of property right, avoid the result of improper interference in the acquisition rules of property right, and be conducive to accurate value judgment. As far as external marital relationship is concerned, the adoption of potential sharing theory can prevent the complexity of marital common property from impairing transaction safety. Under potential sharing theory, the registration stipulated in Article 10 of Interpretation Ⅲ of the Supreme People's Court of Several Issues on the Application of the Marriage Law of the P.R.C. serves only as a presumption of preference in marital relationship. Article 17 paragraph 1 subparagraph 4 of the Marriage Law, Article 22 of Interpretation Ⅱ of the Supreme People's Court of Several Issues on the Application of the Marriage Law and Article 7 of Interpretation Ⅲ of the Supreme People's Court of Several Issues on the Application of the Marriage Law are all rules on the interpretation of declaration of will, which are not related to marital common property system. The mode of current law, which classifies joint debts on the basis of internal and external marital relationships, is reasonable, but improvement should be made in risk control. To be specific, the right of claim of recoupment in marital relationship should be affirmed and the rules on the distribution of internal and external proof burdens should be distinguished from each other. The scope of property for the debts incurred by the non-direct-debtor should be limited to the common property and the part he or she gets from the division of the marital common property in divorce.
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