文章摘要
委托合同任意解除的损害赔偿
Compensation for Discretionarily Termination of Commission Contract
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 委托合同  任意解除  损害赔偿  受托人利益  报酬请求权
英文关键词: commission contract  discretionary termination right  compensation  the interest of agent  reward request right
基金项目:国家社科基金重点项目“民法典编纂中的服务合同立法研究”(15AFX016)、国家“万人计划”青年拔尖人才项目的成果。
作者单位
周江洪 浙江大学光华法学院 
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中文摘要:
      委托合同任意解除的损害赔偿问题,学界和实务界多围绕履行利益、信赖利益、直接损失等概念展开分析,争议不断。委托合同任意解除权的制度目的,因委托的有偿与否、任意解除权发动主体的不同而不同,在损害赔偿范围的考量上亦应注意到此等差异。委托人任意解除时,受托人就事务处理存有自身利益的,无论有偿与否,此等利益的损失应纳入合同法第410条意义上的损失的范围。委托人任意解除有偿委托的,可归入因可归责于债权人事由的履行不能,受托人可依风险负担规则请求将来报酬并作相应扣减,此等报酬并非合同法第410条意义上的损失。受托人任意解除无偿委托,可参照赠与人任意撤销赠与时的处理,赔偿委托人受损的信赖利益。受托人任意解除有偿委托的,受托人并不承担拒绝履行的违约责任,应区分是否得以采取替代措施,分别承担因解除而增加的费用的赔偿或者是因解除而无法继续该事务处理所引起的损害赔偿责任。在需要作出特别政策考量的消费者合同、类似劳动关系的委托合同等领域,则结合相关政策要求对损害赔偿的范围作出限定或扩张。
英文摘要:
      In recent years, there have been many analyses of and controversies over various issues relating to the compensation for discretionarily termination of commission contract. The purpose of discretionary right in commission contract varies with the people who exercise the right and between gratuitous contracts and onerous contracts. And these differences should be taken into consideration when defining the scope of damages as well. Specifically, when the principal exercises the discretionary right and the agent benefits from the transaction, this benefit loss should be dealt with in accordance with Article 410 of the Contract Law, whether the commission contract is paid or not. When the principal terminates an onerous commission contract discretionarily, and such termination can be classified as impossibility of performance due to the principal, the agent can request future reward according to the risk bearing rule. But this reward is not regulated as a loss under Article 410 of the Contract Law. When the agent terminates a gratuitous commission contract discretionarily, he/she should compensate the principal's reliance interest in a way similar to that in the case of donation rescission right at will. When the agent terminates an onerous commission contract discretionarily, he/she is not liable for breach of the contract. Instead, he/she should compensate the increased costs when substitutive measures are available. Otherwise, he/she should compensate the damages resulting from the termination. Moreover, in some commission contracts that contain special policy considerations, such as consumer contracts and labor contracts, the scope of damages should be expanded or limited according to the relevant policies.
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