文章摘要
起诉条件前置审理论
Theory on the Adjudication of Suit Filing Requirement in Advance
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 起诉条件  诉讼要件  前置审理  立审分立
英文关键词: suit filing requirement  litigation element  adjudication in advance  separation of docketing and trial
基金项目:本文是2015年国家社科基金西部项目“迈向制度理性的民事庭审阶段化构造研究”的阶段性成果之一。
作者单位
段文波 西南政法大学 
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中文摘要:
      从比较法观之,我国民事诉讼法规定的起诉条件相当于德日民事诉讼法上的诉讼要件。当下,德日学理上几乎都是基于特定的审理构造来认识诉讼要件的本质,即在一体化的复式平行审理诉讼结构下,视其为本案判决的前提要件;或在单层阶段诉讼结构下,视之为本案审理的前提要件。但是,我国民事诉讼采用的是以单层阶段为主、复式平行为补充的混合结构,因而不能简单地套用上述德日学理来解释我国起诉条件的本质。此外,我国的立案程序具有原发性,其并非肇端于大陆法系的诉讼要件理论,而是源于解决起诉难的实践需求。采用何种程序审理诉讼要件及起诉条件,取决于其属性与功能。在二元诉权论的框架内,作为国家干涉甄选纠纷的标尺,起诉条件之本质乃是诉权行使要件,具有职权调查性与先决性,因此将其作为前置审理对象也未尝不可。
英文摘要:
      From the perspective of comparative law, the "suit filing requirement" provided for in Chinese Civil Procedure Law is equivalent to the "litigation element" in Japanese and German civil procedures. In contemporary Germany and Japan, scholars mostly identify the nature of litigation element on the basis of the trial structure it is relying on:if the trial structure is a consistent compound-parallel structure, the litigation element will be considered as the prerequisite for the judgment of the case; and if the trial structure is a seriatim progressive structure, the litigation element will be considered as the prerequisite for the trial of the case. Nevertheless, the trial structure in China is a mixed structure constructed by taking seriatim progressive structure as main reference and compound-parallel structure as assistance, thus it is inappropriate to simply copy the German and Japanese theories to explain the nature of the suit filing requirement in China. In addition, the docketing procedure in China is an indigenous product originating from the practical needs of solving the suit filing problem, rather than from the litigation element theory of the civil law system. The procedure for adjudicating the litigation element and the suit filing requirement should be decided by the nature and function of such element and requirement. Under the framework of the dual theory of litigation right, suit filing requirement, as a symbol of the state's selection of and interference in disputes, is in essence the requirement needed to implement litigation right. It can be investigated by the court sua sponte and can be decided in advance. Therefore, the suit filing requirement can be adjudicated by the court in advance.
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