文章摘要
多元一统的政治宪法结构——政治宪法学理论基础的反思与重建
Pluralistic and Unified Structure of Political Constitution
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 政治宪法学  政治体公式  执政权  市民社会  国家治理
英文关键词: political constitution  formula of political bodies  executive  civil society  state governance
基金项目:
作者单位
张龑 中国人民大学法学院 
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中文摘要:
      有政治宪法学者以卢梭的政治体平衡公式作为理论基石,但其理论建构并未能充分涵盖国家治理的开放性和复杂性.同样以卢梭的政治体公式为基础,可以提炼出政党执政权和政府执政权两种模式,进而将市民社会纳为结构要素.然而,一旦纳入多元社会,政治体就有了分化与解构的趋势,若要做到多元一统,还需要全面思考政治体成员的主权地位和法律地位.对应公民的四种主权地位,在代议制度外,政治体还应在主权者和公民之间,建立其他可以直接沟通二者的制度.据此,多元一统、收放自如的政治宪法结构才是政治宪法学的基本任务和理论基础.
英文摘要:
      In China, the theory of political constitution, of which Professor Chen Duanhong is the representative jurist, bases itself above all on the balance formula of political body, put forward by the great French thinker Jean-Jacques Rousseau. This theoretical construction, however, cannot explain fully both the complexity and the inclusiveness of modern state governance. This article, as Professor Chen's, also begins the argumentation from Rousseau's balance formula of political body. And from the formula, two models-one is the political leadership of parties and the other is the representative system of government-are extracted; furthermore, civil society is to be included as the fundamental element of political construction. However, once a pluralistic society is included in political structure, the whole political body will suffer the risk of differentiation and deconstruction. In order to ensure not only the plurality, but also the unification of the political body, it is really necessary to comprehensively take the sovereign status and legal status of the members of the political body into account. To correspond to citizens' four types of sovereign status, in addition to representative system, the political body should also establish other institutions which can directly unify the sovereign and the citizen. Thus, how to construct a plural and unifying structure of political body that can be smoothly decentralized and centralized is the fundamental task of the theory of political constitution in China, and only this political structure could be the theoretical basis of political constitution.
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