文章摘要
以审判为中心的刑事诉讼制度改革
On Trial-Centered Reform of the Criminal Procedural System
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 诉讼阶段  以审判为中心  侦查案卷  以庭审为中心  对质权
英文关键词: procedural stages  trial-centered  investigation dossier  hearing-centered  right of confrontation
基金项目:本文为国家“2011计划”司法文明协同创新中心的研究成果.
作者单位
魏晓娜 中国人民大学刑事法律科学研究中心 
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中文摘要:
      十八届四中全会决定提出“推进以审判为中心的诉讼制度改革”,这触及了中国刑事诉讼结构中一个由来已久的症结.“以审判为中心”观念的缺失,造成了同一审级诉讼流程中审判的“离心化”和实际上的“侦查中心主义”,进而导致垂直审级结构中第一审的“失重”,在实践中引发了较为严重的后果和特殊的政治风险.推进以审判为中心的刑事诉讼制度改革,应当在两个方向上着手:在水平方向上,首先应当在宏观的侦查、审査起诉和审判的关系上实现“以审判为中心”,其中的关键在于抑制案卷移送制度的不良影响,同时为“审判中心主义”发掘更大的制度空间;其次在审判阶段应当做到“以庭审为中心”,其核心要求是保护被告方的对质权;法院判决的权威性来自公正的庭审,法院自身也不能脱离庭审来进行事实认定.在纵向的审级结构上,在打造坚实的第一审的基础上,确立第一审在事实认定方面的权威地位,同时合理界定和调整第二审和死刑复核程序的功能,确保第一审在整个刑事程序体系中居于“重心”地位.
英文摘要:
      The Resolution of the Fourth Plenary Session of the Eighteenth CPC Central Committee put forward the plan for “promoting the trial-centered reform of the procedural system”, which touches upon a long-standing problem in the macro structure of Chinese criminal proceedings. The absence of the notion of taking trial as center in China leads to the de-centralization of trial and actual investigation centralism in proceedings at the horizontal level, and then the weightlessness of the first instance trial at the vertical level, resulting in serious consequences in judicial practice and special political risks. “The trial-centered reform of the procedural system” should be implemented at two levels. At the horizontal level, firstly, trial should become the center of the relationship between investigation, prosecution review and trial, the key to which is to control the adverse influence of investigation dossier system and at the same time open up more institutional space for trial centralism. Secondly, at trial stage, courtroom hearing should be taken as the center. The legitimacy of a judgment comes from the fairness of courtroom hearing. The court itself cannot find fact outside court hearing. One of the essential requirements of taking courtroom hearing as the center is to safeguard the defendant's right of confrontation. At the vertical level, the authoritativeness of fact finding in the first instance trial should be established on the basis of a strong and solid first instance trial, and at the same time the functions of the second instance trial and death penalty review procedure should be re-defined and adjusted, so as to guarantee the status of the first instance trial as the gravity of the whole criminal procedure system.
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