文章摘要
个人信息国家保护义务理论的反思与重塑
Rethinking and Reshapingthe Theory of State’s Obligationto Protect PersonalInformation
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  个人信息保护;个人信息权;国家保护义务;间接效力;部门宪法
英文关键词:  personal information protection; right to personal information; state’s protection obligation; indirect validity; departmental constitution
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作者单位
李海平  
摘要点击次数: 1934
全文下载次数: 77
中文摘要:
      当前的个人信息国家保护义务理论,主张将个人信息纳入基本权利保护范围,并以个人信息国家保护义务为基础建立个人信息保护法律体系。然而,在概念表达上,该理论以“客观法”表征个人信息基本权的属性,错置了客观法与主观权利之间的关系;用“间接效力”指称个人信息基本权对作为私主体的信息处理者的效力,混淆了“效力”和“效果”的语义。在宪法解释方法论层面,该理论在宏观上具有的法哲学化解释倾向、在微观上对概括性人权条款的悬置处理,使其在宪法教义学上欠缺说服力。面对立法实践,该理论无力解释作为私主体的信息处理者何以承担公法义务。确立个人信息保护权利基础的二元结构,明确个人信息基本权积极面向的主观权利属性,适度延伸个人信息基本权的效力范围,并对国家保护义务内容作相应调整,是重塑个人信息国家保护义务理论的有效途径。
英文摘要:
      The current theory of state’s obligation to protect personal information maintains that personal information should be covered in the scope of the protection of basic rights and that a legal system for personal information protection should be established on the basis of the state’s obligation to protect personal information. However, in terms of conceptual expression, the theory uses the term “objective law” to characterize the attribute of the fundamental right to personal information, resulting in the misplacement of the relationship between objective law and subjective right. By using the term “indirect effect” to refer to the validity of the fundamental right to personal information with respect to information processors as private subjects, it confuses the semantics of “validity” and that of “effect”. At the level of constitutional interpretation methodology, the theory has a tendency of philosophical interpretation of law at the macro level and suspension of general human rights clauses at the micro level, which makes it less persuasive in constitutional doctrine. In the face of legislative practice, this theory is unable to explain why information processors, as private subjects, undertake public law obligations. Establishing the dual structure of the right basis of personal information protection, clarifying the subjective right attribute of the fundamental right to personal information in a positive direction, appropriately extending the scope of the validity of this right, and adjusting the content of the state’s protection obligation accordingly, are effective ways to reshape the theory of the state’s obligation to protect personal information.
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